Types Of Engines – Everything You Need To Know

Before the advent of hybrid and electric vehicle engines, an automobile engine could be simply described as a machine that facilitates the internal combustion of energy-producing fluids such as diesel and gasoline. 

These are the 3 types of engines:

  • Internal Combustion Engine
  • Hybrid Engine (Internal Combustion Engine + Electric Motor)
  • Electric Motor

External combustion engines 

An external combustion (EC engine) is a reciprocating heat engine in which the internal working fluid is heated by combustion in an external source through an engine wall or heat exchanger. The fluid expands and acts on the engine mechanism to create motion and useful work. 

The liquid is then either drained (open loop) or cooled, compressed, and recycled (closed loop). In these types of engines, combustion is primarily used as a heat source, and the engine can work with other types of heat sources as well.

Some examples are:

  • CANDU reactor (a type of nuclear power plant)
  • coal power plant.
  • Natural Gas Power Station.
  • steam locomotives (albeit rarely used)
  • solar power plants.
  • Stirling engine.

Internal combustion engines

An internal combustion engine (ICE or IC engine) is a heat engine in which the combustion of a fuel with an oxidant (usually air) occurs in a combustion chamber that is an integral part of the working fluid flow circuit. 

In an internal combustion engine, the expansion of the hot, high-pressure gasses produced by combustion exerts direct forces on some components of the engine.

 Power is typically applied to a piston (piston engine), turbine blade (gas turbine), rotor (Wankel engine), or nozzle (jet engine). This force moves the component a certain distance, converting chemical energy into kinetic energy. 

This energy is used to power, move, or propel whatever the motor is attached to. It has replaced internal combustion engines in applications where engine weight or size is more important.

Examples include 

  • gasoline engines
  • diesel engines
  • gas turbine engines
  • rocket propulsion systems.

Types of engines – Design wise

Reciprocating engine

A reciprocating engine, often known as a piston engine, is typically a heat engine that converts high temperature and pressure into rotary motion using one or more reciprocating pistons. This article describes the common characteristics of all types. 

The main types are An internal combustion engine commonly used in automobiles. The steam engine was the main force of the industrial revolution. Stirling engine for niche applications. Internal combustion engines are further divided into two types. 

A spark ignition (SI) engine where a spark plug initiates combustion. Or a compression ignition (CI) engine where the air in the cylinder is compressed and thereby heated such that the heated air ignites the fuel.

Rotary engine

The rotary engine is an early type of internal combustion engine, usually designed with an odd number of cylinders per bank arranged radially. 

The engine’s crankshaft remained stationary during operation, and the entire crankcase and attached cylinders rotated around it as a unit. Its primary use was in aviation, but it was also used in early motorcycles and automobiles.

This type of engine was widely used as a replacement for conventional inline engines (inline or V-engine) during the First World War and in the years immediately preceding it. 

It was described as a “very efficient solution to power delivery, weight and reliability problems”.

By the early 1920s, this type of engine had become obsolete due to its inherent limitations.

Engine Types – Fuel Used

Petrol engine

A petrol engine is a spark-ignited internal combustion engine. They operate on relatively volatile fuels such as gasoline.

In these engines, air and fuel are generally mixed after compression. Petrol engines operate according to the Otto cycle, which consists of two isochoric and two isentropic processes.

In petrol engines, fuel is mixed with air during the intake process and drawn into the cylinder. 

After the piston compresses the fuel-air mixture, a spark ignites the mixture, causing combustion. The expansion of the combustion gasses pushes the piston during the power stroke.

Diesel engine

A diesel engine, named after Rudolf Diesel, is an internal combustion engine in which the fuel is ignited by increasing the temperature of the air in the cylinder as a result of mechanical compression. Diesel engines are therefore so-called compression ignition (CI) engines.

 This is in contrast to engines that use spark plug ignition of the air-fuel mixture. B. Gasoline engines (Otto engines) or gas engines (those that use gaseous fuels such as natural gas or LPG).

A diesel engine works by compressing air only or air and residual combustion gasses known as Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR). Air is introduced into the chamber during the intake stroke and compressed during the compression stroke. 

This causes the air temperature in the cylinder to become so high that the atomized diesel fuel injected into the combustion chamber ignites. The fuel distribution is uneven because the fuel is injected into the air just prior to combustion. This is called a heterogeneous mixture. 

Diesel engine torque is controlled by manipulating the air-fuel ratio (λ). Instead of throttling the intake air, diesel engines rely on varying the amount of fuel injected, usually with a higher air/fuel ratio.

Gas engine

A gas engine is an internal combustion engine that operates on gaseous fuels such as coal gas, producer gas, biogas, landfill gas, or natural gas. 

In the UK the term is clear. Because “gas” is widely used in the United States as an abbreviation for gasoline, such engines are sometimes called gas-fired or natural gas engines, or spark-ignited engines.

Generally, in modern terminology, the term gas engine refers to heavy-duty industrial engines that typically operate no more than 4,000 hours in their lifetime, unlike lighter gasoline automobile engines. Typical power ranges are from 10 kW (13 hp) to 4 MW (5,364 hp).

Cycle of Operation – Engine types

Otto cycle engine

The Otto cycle is an idealized thermodynamic cycle that describes the operation of a typical spark-ignited piston engine. This is the most common thermodynamic cycle in automotive engines. 

The Otto cycle describes what happens to a gas when pressure, temperature, volume, and heat input and removal are varied. A gas undergoing these changes is called a system. 

The system in this case is defined as a fluid (gas) in a cylinder. By describing the changes that occur within the system, we also describe the impact of the system on the environment. 

In the case of the Otto cycle, the effect will be to produce enough network from the system so as to propel an automobile and its occupants in the environment.

The Otto cycle is constructed from:

Top and bottom of the loop: a pair of quasi-parallel and isentropic processes (frictionless, adiabatic reversible).

Left and right sides of the loop: a pair of parallel isochoric processes (constant volume).

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Diesel cycle engine

The diesel cycle is the combustion process of a reciprocating internal combustion engine. In it, the fuel is ignited by the heat generated when air is compressed in the combustion chamber, after which the fuel is injected. 

This is in contrast to a spark plug igniting the mixture as in a spark ignition (4-stroke/petrol) engine. Diesel engines are used in aircraft, automobiles, power generation, diesel-electric locomotives, and both surface ships and submarines.

The diesel cycle assumes constant pressure during the first part of the combustion phase ({\displaystyle V_{2}}V_{2} to {\displaystyle V_{3}}V_{3} in the diagram). is assumed. below). This is an idealized mathematical model. 

A real physical diesel will increase pressure during this time, but not as significant as the Otto cycle. In contrast, the Otto engine’s idealized Otto cycle approaches a constant volume process at this stage.

Dual cycle engine or semi-diesel cycle engine

The Dual Combustion Cycle (also known as the Mixed Cycle, Trinkler Cycle, Seliger Cycle, or Sabate Cycle) is a thermal cycle that is a combination of the Otto and Diesel cycles, first proposed by Russian-German engineers. Gustav Trinkler never claimed to have developed the cycle himself. 

Heat is supplied partly at constant volume (isochoric) and partly at constant pressure (isobaric). This means the fuel takes more time to burn completely. 

Due to the lagging characteristics of the fuel, this cycle is only used for diesel and hot spot ignition engines. It consists of two adiabatic processes, two constant volume processes, and one constant pressure process.

Pressure-Volume Diagram of the Sabate Cycle

Temperature-Entropy Diagram of the Sabate Cycle

The dual cycle consists of the following operations.

Process 1-2: Isentropic Compression

Process 2-3: Constant Volume.

Process 3-4: Heat input at constant pressure.

Process 4-5: Isentropic expansion.

Step 5-1: Constant volume heat dissipation.

Number of Strokes – Engine types

Four Stroke Engine

Four-stroke engines are the most common type of internal combustion engine and are used in a wide variety of automobiles (specific gasoline as fuel), such as passenger cars, trucks, and some motorcycles (many motorcycles use two-stroke engines). ) is used in A four-stroke engine that provides one power stroke for every two piston cycles (or four piston strokes).

Intake Stroke: The piston moves down and increases in volume, allowing the fuel-air mixture to flow into the chamber.

Compression Stroke: The intake valve closes and the piston moves up the chamber. This compresses the fuel-air mixture. At the end of this cycle, the spark plug supplies the compressed fuel with the necessary activation energy to start combustion.

Power Stroke: When the fuel reaches the end of combustion, the heat released from the combustion of hydrocarbons builds pressure, causing the gasses to push against the piston and produce power.

Exhaust Stroke: When the piston bottoms out, the exhaust valve opens. The remaining exhaust gas is pushed out by the piston rising again.

Two Stroke Engine

A two-stroke engine requires only two piston movements (one cycle) to generate electricity.  The engine can produce power in one cycle because gas is exhausted and drawn in simultaneously, as shown in Figure 1. 

The intake stroke has a valve that opens and closes based on pressure changes. Additionally, due to frequent contact with moving components, fuel is mixed with oil for improved lubrication and a smoother stroke.

In total, a two-stroke engine includes two processes. A spark plug ignites the compressed fuel and begins the power stroke.

Power Stroke: Heated gas exerts high pressure on the piston, causing it to descend (expand) and dissipate waste heat.

Hot spot ignition engine

Type of Ignition- Engine types

Spark ignition engine (S.I. engine)

A spark ignition (Otto) engine is an internal combustion engine, typically a gasoline engine, in which the combustion process of the air-fuel mixture is ignited by a spark from a spark plug.

This is in contrast to compression ignition engines, which are typical diesel engines where the heat produced by compression combined with fuel injection is sufficient to start the combustion process without the need for an external spark. target.

Gasoline engines are commonly referred to as ‘gasoline engines in North America and ‘gasoline engines in the UK and other countries.

Gasoline engines can (and increasingly do) run on non-gasoline fuels such as Autogas (LPG), Methanol, Ethanol, Bioethanol, Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) ), hydrogen, and (in drag racing) nitromethane.

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Compression ignition engine (C.I. engine)

Compression ignition or diesel engines are the most commonly used types to generate electricity, especially in off-grid situations. 

Engines use higher compression ratios than gasoline engines to heat the air in the engine cylinders. 

Then a denser fuel than gasoline, usually diesel, is introduced and spontaneously ignites. Higher compression ratios are more efficient, but diesel engines have to be more powerful and heavier to handle higher pressures. 

This makes them more expensive. The engine also produces more emissions than a spark ignition engine. 

Some engines use turbochargers or superchargers to further increase efficiency. Most diesel engines are 4-stroke engines, but some very large low-speed diesel engines are based on the 2-stroke cycle.

Number of Cylinders- Engine types

Single cylinder engine

A single-cylinder engine, also called a knocker, is a piston engine with one cylinder. This engine is widely used in motorcycles, scooters, go-karts, SUVs, remote control vehicles, portable tools, and gardening machinery (lawnmowers, cultivators, brush cutters, etc.). Single-cylinder engines are manufactured as both 4-stroke and 2-stroke engines.

The shortcomings of the single-cylinder engine are high pulsating power and high vibration levels on each cycle. 

Uneven power output means that single-cylinder engines often require heavier flywheels than comparable multi-cylinder engines, resulting in relatively slow changes in engine speed. 

To reduce vibration levels, they often use more balance shafts than multi-cylinder engines or use more extreme methods such as dummy connecting rods (like the Ducati Supermono). 

These balancing devices can utilize single-cylinder engines in terms of weight savings and complexity.

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Double cylinder engine

A twin-cylinder engine has two cylinders or two pistons. Because there are two pistons, the pistons reduce vibration from each other and are well balanced (one goes up and the other goes down, or vice versa). 

Also, twin-cylinder bikes have more power because they rev higher. However, it may lack the torque of a single cylinder.

Twin-cylinder engines are always popular in cars that spend most of their time in the city. They usually consist of two pistons moving up and down in parallel or two cylinders in a V arrangement. These engines tend to be smaller and therefore not particularly powerful, but fuel economy is a plus.

multi-cylinder engines (including twin) are designed for specific demographics seeking smoother power delivery and lower noise. 

The multi-cylinder offers great performance and capability for long rides. Most drivers wouldn’t want to run a single cylinder from Boscastle to Lands the End, mainly because of the discomfort and noise.

Multi-cylinder engine

The power produced by the engine can be increased by increasing the size of the single cylinder or by using multiple cylinders of the same size. A single, large cylinder might be a more convenient option because it has fewer parts to manufacture and maintain.

The larger the combustion chamber, the longer it takes for complete combustion, making the engine unsuitable for motorcycles. For this reason, multi-cylinder engines have become the standard method for creating large-displacement, high-power models.

Single-cylinder engines are generally simpler and more compact than multi-cylinder engines. Air cooling is often more effective in single-cylinder engines than in multi-cylinder engines because air is likely to flow on all sides of the cylinder.

Arrangement of Cylinders – Engine Types

Vertical engine

A vertical engine is an engine in which the piston moves vertically up and down and the crankshaft is usually below the cylinder.

These motors are also commonly used in go-karts, small e-bikes, and other small industrial or construction machines. Our vertical shaft go-kart engine gives you the ultimate speed, power, and control while zipping through a variety of landscapes and terrains.

The Predator 173cc OHV vertical axis engine features a fuel-efficient overhead valve for cooler, cleaner performance, and longer life. It also features improved engineering and construction, including a Durable cast iron cylinder.

It is clear that the transverse engine will be more stable by lowering the center of gravity, and the larger engine will be more stable by longitudinally mounting it. The best possible placement is the slanted orientation.

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Horizontal engine

A horizontal engine, also called a flat engine, is a piston engine with cylinders on either side of a central crankshaft. A horizontal engine should not be confused with an opposed-piston engine, which has two pistons in each cylinder and shares a central combustion chamber. 

The most common configuration of a horizontal engine is an engine where the pistons of each pair of opposing cylinders move in and out simultaneously. 

Another configuration is his V-engine with practically a 180-degree angle between the cylinder banks. Each pair of cylinders shares one crank pin, so one piston moves inward and the other outward.

Radial engine

A radial engine. A type of internal combustion engine, used mainly in small aircraft, in which the cylinders (he is 5 to 28, depending on the size of the engine) are arranged in a circle around the crankshaft, sometimes in two or more banks.

The radial engine works like any other 4-stroke internal combustion engine. Each cylinder has intake, compression, power, and exhaust strokes. They differ from in-line and boxer engines in the firing order and connection to the crankshaft.

The radial engine cylinders are numbered clockwise from the top, with 1 being the first cylinder. The connecting rod of the first cylinder is attached directly to the crankshaft – this is the main rod. The rods of the other cylinders are connected to pivot points around the main rod.

V-engine

A V-engine, sometimes called a V-engine, is a common configuration for internal combustion engines. This consists of two banks of cylinders, usually with the same number of cylinders in each bank, connected to a common crankshaft.

The banks of these cylinders are arranged at an angle to each other so that the banks form a “V” shape when viewed from the front of the engine.

V engines are typically shorter in length than comparable inline engines, with the tradeoff of being wider. V6, V8, and V12 engines are the most common layouts for automotive engines with 6, 8, and 12 cylinders respectively.

The V engine has an improved lower center of gravity and this design is more space efficient due to its higher cylinder count. The horizontal engine is very low and wide, resulting in a lower center of gravity and better handling.

W type engine

A W engine is a type of piston engine that uses the same crankshaft, which resembles the letter W when viewed from the front, in banks of three or four cylinders. 

An internal combustion engine in which three sets of cylinders are arranged side by side in three planes forming angles so that the cross-section perpendicular to the shaft has the general shape of the letter W.

The W engine with a three-cylinder bank is also called the ‘Broad Arrow’ engine due to its shape resembling the British government’s Broad Arrow trademark.

The W engine is rarer than the V engine. Compared to V engines, W engines are generally shorter and wider.

Opposed cylinder engine

An opposed-piston engine is a piston engine that has a piston at each end of each cylinder instead of a cylinder head. Gasoline and diesel opposed-piston engines were primarily used for heavy-duty applications such as ships, military tanks, and factories.

The efficiency advantage of the opposed-piston two-stroke engine is primarily due to the reduction in heat loss in the cylinder due to the elimination of the cylinder head and the lower surface area to volume ratio. Equivalent two-stroke displacement ratios”.

The opposed-piston engine is 30-50% more fuel efficient than comparable diesel and gasoline engines and is a no-compromise way to meet future efficiency and emissions standards. 

The technology and infrastructure to meet these future standards are in place and will be available to consumers in the near future.

Valve Arrangement

L-head engine

A flathead engine, also known as an L-head engine or valve-in-block engine, is an internal combustion engine that contains the poppet valves in the engine block rather than in the cylinder head like an overhead valve engine.

The Flathead was used internationally by automakers from the late 1890s to the mid-1950s, but was replaced by more efficient engines with overhead valves and overhead camshafts. It is currently making a comeback with low speed aircraft engines such as the D engine.

Advantages of the L-head  engine include simplicity, reliability, reduced parts count, low cost, light weight, compactness, responsiveness at low rpm, low mechanical engine noise, insensitivity to low octane fuels. And so on. 

With no complicated valve train, the cylinder head is nothing more than a simple metal casting, allowing for a compact engine that is cheap to manufacture. 

These advantages explain why side-valve engines have long been used in passenger cars, while OHV designs are specified only for high-performance applications such as airplanes, luxury vehicles, sports cars, and some motorcycles.

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I-head engine

An internal-combustion engine with both intake and exhaust valves placed directly above the piston. Also called: overhead-valve engine, valve-in-head engine.

It stands for Injection as in Fuel Injection.

Overhead camshaft (OHC) engines also have overhead valves, but the general use of the term “overhead camshaft engine” is limited to engines where the camshaft is in the engine block. 

In these conventional OHV engines, camshaft motion is transmitted using pushrods (hence the term “pushrod engine”) and rocker arms to actuate valves at the top of the engine.

Some early intake-exhaust engines used a hybrid design that combined side-valve and overhead-valve elements.

F-head engine

The Toyota F-series engines were a series of OHV in-line 6-cylinder engines manufactured by Toyota between November 1949 and 1992. Known for high torque at low engine rpm, huge cast iron blocks and heads, and high reliability.

In the F-head/IOE engine, the intake manifold and its valves are located in the cylinder head above the cylinder and are actuated by a rocker arm that reverses the movement of the pushrod, opening the intake of his valves downward into the combustion chamber increase.

F134 carried over to his CJ lineup along with his 1953 CJ-3B (above). Now we have to deal with another F-head engine. This is a very interesting case for the rover engine.

T-head engine

The T-head engine is an early internal combustion engine that was decommissioned after World War I. This is a side-valve engine, unlike the L-head where valve placement is common. The intake valves are on one side of the engine block and the exhaust valves are on the other side. 

Viewed from the end of the crankshaft, the cross-section of the cylinder and combustion chamber resembles a T, hence the name ‘T-head’. The L head has all valves on the same side.

This type of engine can be found in cars such as Mercedes and Stutz, and the last T-head engine produced for passenger cars was manufactured by the American company Locomobile. Both Stutz and the White Motor Car Company used his 4-valve engines of 65 and 72 hp in 1917. 

The White Company’s engine was a monoblock design. Pierce Arrow introduced his 4 valves per cylinder (dual valve six) production T-head engine in 1918.

 American LaFrance continued to make T-head engines for fire trucks until the 1950s, but he also built overhead cam engines by the 1940s.

Types of cooling

Air-cooled engines

Air-cooled engines rely on heat-dissipating fins or the circulation of air directly over hot areas of the engine to cool them and keep the engine at operating temperature. 

In all internal combustion engines, the majority of the heat produced (approximately 44%) is exhausted through the exhaust pipes rather than through the metal fins (12%) of air-cooled engines. 

About 8% of the heat energy is transferred to the oil, which is mainly used for lubrication, but also plays a role in heat dissipation via the cooler. 

Air-cooled engines are commonly used in applications that are not suitable for liquid cooling. Such modern air-cooled engines are used in motorcycles, general aviation, lawn mowers, generators, outboard motors, pump sets, sorbents and auxiliary power supplies. unit.

Water cooled engines

Liquid-cooled engines use water-based fluids to cool the engine, but not regular water such as hard, soft, or tap water. A special coolant containing alcohol is used to prevent freezing and rust/oxidation. 

This coolant is circulated through channels built into the engine. In order for the coolant to work efficiently, it receives the on-going airflow through the radiator, reduces its temperature, and then recirculates it. 

The benefits of liquid cooling include reducing the impact of outside air temperature changes on the engine for more consistent performance, and the coolant reducing engine vibration and mechanical noise. 

Liquid cooling is more complicated than air cooling as it requires radiators, coolant ducts and pipes, but the advantage of providing consistent engine power and performance is why many models use liquid cooling. .

 

Speed engines

Low-speed engine

Low speed is characterized by a nominal speed in the range of 80 to 120 revolutions per minute. In both cases, it is a two-stroke engine charged by an exhaust gas turbocharger.

The advantage of the low speed 4 stroke diesel engine is the reduced engine speed due to the long stroke. 

High thermal efficiency is achieved through a low speed that ensures sufficient burn time and a long stroke that provides a larger combustion chamber.

The large, low speed (80-200 rpm), double-acting engine is a two-stroke engine. For lighter, higher speed (1000-2500 rpm) engines, a 4-stroke cycle is recommended. Medium speed engines (200-1000 rpm) can be operated on both cycles.

Medium speed engine

The mid-speed model picks up speed, so expect a speed rating that comfortably touches the 800 rpm mark, aided by a drive-interface gear train and a trunk-piston engine architecture that uses a four-stroke diesel combustion cycle.

Medium speed engines are used in mechanical drive applications such as large generators, rail diesel locomotives, marine propulsion, and large compressors and pumps. 

Medium-speed diesel engines, like low-speed engines, are powered by direct injection of diesel fuel or heavy oil.

Medium speed engines (200-1000 rpm) can be operated on both cycles. A slow 2-stroke engine has relatively heavy components, while a 4-stroke engine has much lighter components. A two-stroke engine has fewer cylinders and essentially fewer moving parts.

High-speed engine

High-speed engines rated at 900 to 1,200 rpm are rarely used in marine vessels, but engines in this class are almost always used in smaller vessels such as tugs, fishing boats and high-speed ferries.

The motor is a high speed motor with an operating speed range 1000-2000 rpm.

Driving at high speeds consumes more fuel per mile and the transmission may not be able to keep up. Also, driving at this speed puts extra stress on all the small moving parts of the engine, which can lead to premature wear.

Method of Fuel Injection

Carburetor engine

A carburetor  is a device used in internal combustion engines to control the amount of air and fuel entering the engine. The primary method of adding fuel to the intake is via a venturi tube in the main metering circuit, but various other components are also used to provide additional fuel or air under certain circumstances .

Since the 1990s, fuel injection has largely replaced carburetors in cars and trucks, but carburetors are still used in some small engines (lawn mowers, generators, concrete mixers, etc.) and motorcycles . Diesel engines have always used fuel injection instead of carburetors.

Air injection engine

Air injection is the historic direct injection system for diesel engines. Unlike modern designs, air injection diesel engines do not have injection pumps. Instead, a simple low pressure fuel lift pump is used to fuel the injectors.

 During injection, a blast of compressed air pushes the fuel into the combustion chamber, hence the name blast air injection. Compressed air is supplied from a compressed air tank that feeds the injection nozzles. 

Large crankshaft driven compressors are used to refill these tanks. The size of the supercharger and the engine’s low crankshaft speed mean that the size and mass of the airblast diesel engine is enormous.

Combined with the problem that air blasting cannot tolerate rapid load changes, it is only suitable for stationary applications. 

Applications and Vessels. Before the invention of pre-chamber fuel injection, air injection was the only way to build the properly functioning internal air-fuel mixing system required in a diesel engine. 

By the 1920s, superior injection system design had made air injection obsolete, allowing for much smaller and more powerful engines. In November 1893 Rudolf Diesel patented a blast air injection (DRP 82 168).

Airless or solid injection engine

This is the injection of atomized fuel oil into the combustion chamber of a diesel engine under the pressure of liquid fuel. Airless Mechanical Injection System is another name for Solid Injection System.

In this method, fuel is injected under high pressure directly into the combustion chamber. It burns with the heat of compression of air. This method requires a fuel pump that delivers fuel at a high pressure of approximately 300 kg/cm².

fuel injection dominates for improved performance, fuel efficiency and throttle response. FI systems can cost more, but the long-term aspects of FI systems are better than carburetors.

Method of Governing

Hit-and-miss governed engine

It is a type of stationary combustion engine, controlled by a speed limiter. It is an engine with a set of flywheels attached to the crankshaft. It maintains the engine speed during cycles that do not generate running mechanical forces.

 Hit and Miss – completely operate the engine’s speed by blocking its ignition system when it drives too fast. That is the “miss” part. When the engine reduces its running speed, it can “hit” again and pick up speed back up. 

Hit-and-miss governed work 

In these engines, instead of an actuator in intake valves, a spring keeps the intake valve off until the vacuum in the cylinder makes it open. 

A vacuum generates only when the exhaust valve is off during the piston down stroke. As the engine is driving at or below the speed, the governor closes the exhaust valve. 

Next down, the stroke of a vacuum in the cylinder will open the intake valve, and the fuel-air mixture will occur. This process will protect the fuel consumption during the intake stroke of miss cycles.

Application Wise Types of Engines

Stationary engine

A stationary engine is an engine whose framework remains still without movement. To drive immobile equipment like pumps, generators, mills or factory machinery, and stationary engines are used.

A stationary engine is always fixed in one place and provides energy to a specific machine or equipment. Steam-powered engines were stationary engines. Nowadays, diesel engines are most commonly used all over the world.

Good examples of stationary engines are water pumps and electric generators.

As power plants are not complicated to work, stationary engines have worked best for manufacturing plants. 

A trained mechanic can work with a  single engine to perform operations for the entire plant. If we see the negative side of this facility, if a single engine gets stuck, it will affect the production operation of the plant. 

To avoid this, mostly the plants have a back engine to continue their work cycle. Several companies are using stationary engines. Like Henry Ford, the users of the stationary engine system in his Detroit, Michigan, automobile assembly plants.

All over the world, people use stationary engines to run irrigation pumps. The power plants run big pumps and help spray the crops with water to produce the required crops. 

Electric power worked with the stationary engine. Several companies use stationary engines to run electric machines. 

Hospitals and other sensitive operations systems use many backup power systems. Oil pumps and pipelines use stationary engines to run the pumps that smoothly flow the oil through the system.

Automotive engine

The engines used in automobile industries are petrol engines, diesel engines, gas engines, and internal combustion engines are a type of automotive engine.

Automotive engines are machines that use fuel to produce power and to run automobiles like airplanes, cars, motorcycles, and buses. In automotive vehicles, electric engines and heat engines are used. These are piston internal combustion engines.

Automotive engines also run the generators, air conditioning compressor and power steering pump. Usually, automotive engines use chemical energy and change it into mechanical energy by using gasoline or hydrocarbon fuel.

Many automotive engines transfer the camshaft that runs the intake and exhaust valves from the cylinder block to the cylinder head. This allows using more than two valves per cylinder with different multi valve engines, nearly three to five.

The classification of the engines relies on the types of fuel used, the cycle of operation, stroke numbering,  ignition types, how many cylinders, how cylinders are fixed, valve arrangement, different cooling systems etc. 

These engines are used in automotive industries, aircraft industries, marine industries, etc. as per their requirements they are used in different ways and areas.

Generally, engines are of two types: external and internal combustion.

In external combustion engines, fuel combustion is done outside the engine, as in the example of the steam engine.

In internal combustion engines, fuel combustion is done inside the engine. Examples are two-stroke and four-stroke petrol and diesel engines.

Locomotive engine

It is a rail transport, giving motive power for a train. It is a self-propelled engine run by steam, electricity, or diesel power and used for running trains along railway tracks. 

The locomotive is a self-operated train; it generates energy through fuel combustion, electricity, magnetic or other methods. 

Locomotives are very powerful because they pull and push several trains.

An engine that runs on a railway track without help does not think it is a train. It is a locomotive working without any coaching. It moves by a self-operating system.

Locomotives were introduced in the 1800s. This new version was powered by steam. A locomotive is a specialized type of train car which is used to run the whole train. 

The locomotive is self-propelled, generating energy through burning fuel, electricity, magnetic levitation, or other methods. Locomotives can be used to either push or pull train cars. The locomotive is now used worldwide, propelling passengers and freight to various locations. 

Three types of railway engines are mechanical, hydraulic and electric.

There are three types of railway engines: mechanical, hydraulic or electric.

Diesel locomotive engines work better than steam engines.

They perform actively after maintenance and are easy to maintain. It is a diesel engine with internal combustion.

Marine engine

It is a nonroad engine and always fixed on a marine vessel .marine engine is for propelling the ships. These engines work to drive the vessel from one port to another.

Marine engines change the heat energy produced by burning fuel into useful energy or mechanical energy. For marine propulsion and to produce power or energy, internal; combustion engines are in use 

The following main points will explain the working of marine engines.

Fuel is inserted at high pressure. 

With the help of a piston, the fuel and air are compressed inside the engine cylinder. As a result, heat energy is produced that raises the pressure of burning gas. 

As pressure rises, it kicks the piston downwards and transfers the transverse motion into rotary motion, and this process maintains the power output.

For performing the mechanical work, the crankshaft is connected to the alternator. For continuous rotation of the crankshaft, explosions must be repeated without a gap.

Aircraft engine

It means aero engine; aircraft engines are piston engines or gas turbines. Mechanical power is produced with the help of an aircraft engine that is a part of the propulsion system.

The two main types of aircraft engines are Jet and reciprocating. 

An aircraft engine is referred to as a reciprocating engine.It is an internal combustion engine that changes pressure into rotational motion by using reciprocating pistons.

A jet engine changes energy-rich fuel into useful energy that pushes a pushing force called thrust. 

To produce upward force or energy called lift, a power source in the air, the thrust from one or more engines pushes a plane forward, forcing air past its specially created wings.

The reciprocating engine helps to operate private and commercial aeroplanes.also called a piston engine( heat engine ), uses reciprocating pistons to change high temperature and pressure into a rotating motion. 

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